History of the department

Researchers of the department have shown that the concentration of hydroxyl ions in soap solutions under normal conditions can not characterize the degree of hydrolysis of soaps, because some structural components of their solutions differ in the ability to adsorb hydroxyl ions to establish some equilibrium. It was found that the hydrolysis in the soap solution is greater than calculated on the basis of the concentration of hydroxyl ions. It became possible to conclude the presence in soap solutions of “acid soaps” and special formations (conventionally called “basic soaps”), which probably consist of a complex of particles of non-hydrolyzed soap charged with hydroxyl ions, and as such corresponding to the “neutral colloid” Mc- Ben.

The results of the work are of interest also because the conclusions from it give a basis for the approach to the decision of a question on a possible structure of structural ingredients of the soap solutions forming its surface layer. The conducted research raised the question of the expedient form of expression of the concept of the value of the detergency of soap solutions and the method of its quantitative characterization. In this regard the new formulation of concept of size of washing ability is offered. In particular, a special device was designed to compare the washing ability of several soaps in the laboratory.

Earlier, a number of studies were conducted to evaluate various detergents and determine their optimal formulations. This study allowed us to get an idea of ​​the relationship between the amounts of fatty acids and free soda in washing powders and the behavior of salts of different organic acids in solution in the presence of different amounts of sodium.

Simultaneously with these studies, the laboratory studied the physical properties of solid soap, which affect the value of its consumer consumption. Employees of the department (B.N. Tyutyunnikov, G.L. Yukhnovsky, G. Noskov, Z.I. Pleshkova, N.A. Kasyanova, etc.) had to do a lot of work during the raw materials crisis in soap making in Ukraine. in the 30s of the last century.

To find fat substitutes suitable for the manufacture of detergents, the laboratory launched various experiments, including the use of wood waste (especially conifers), low-coking resin of fox coals, sulfite-cellulose alkalis, oxidation products of vaseline oil and, finally, clay. Based on the results of scientific research BN Tobacconists defended the view that clays do not have an independent cleaning action, similar to soaps, unless, of course, due to their purely mechanical action due to friction. It is established that only clays which do not differ in big ability to absorb it are suitable for introduction into soap. At the same time, the laboratory carried out work on the selection of clays suitable for introduction into soap; along with this, a method of introducing clays into soap was developed.

Researchers (B.N. Tyutyunnikov, A.S. Chernichkina, N.A. Kasyanov, etc.) studied the structure of pilar toilet soaps, as well as household soaps, showed the crystallinity of most of them. Simultaneously with this work, the production of so-called “transparent-glycerol” soap and the possibility of obtaining high-percentage soaps in a transparent state were studied. As a result of the research, the conditions for obtaining such soaps were clarified and a method of their production was developed.

The mechanical treatment of pylon soap was studied. As a result of research, it has become possible to consider its processing, similar to the processing of metals. All this is confirmed by microscopic studies, which revealed, for example, the orientation of the crystalline soap aggregates during rolling or processing in pelotes. These studies on the structure of toilet soap and its changes during processing made it possible to determine the mode of individual machines of the toilet soap factory and to achieve impeccable product quality. Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Department of Fat Technology, headed by BN Tyutyunnikov joined the work, which had a defensive significance for the USSR.