The head – Dr. Baranov Mikhail Ivanovich
Activity of the department is well known both in Ukraine and outside it. It is connected with theoretical and experimental works on investigation and testing of immunity of various specimens of equipment of civil and military destination to action of high-power electromagnetic disturbances. It is known that the main instrument that determines reliable operation of radio-electronic means and electrothechnical equipment in conditions of destabilizing action of high-power electromagnetic disturbances is conduction of their full-scale tests. Over the period of activity of the department, tests for electromagnetic factor were conducted on more than 3500 of article items of various destination that corroborated the need in their fulfillment. The results obtained in these tests are used by industry ministries for improvement of constructions and circuit designs, which ensures significant increase of reliability of their functioning as components of objects of civil and military destination, and defense capability of the country as a whole.
Employees of the department carry out complex investigations of interaction of high pulsed currents (HPC) and strong pulsed magnetic fields of various origin with objects of aerospace equipment and electrical engineering.
Scientific and engineering principles of electromagnetic, electrothermal and electrodynamic immunity of engineering objects to action of HPC were developed. Mechanisms of interaction of lightning with aircrafts were described. On their basis practical recommendations and devices to increase their lightning protection were developed.
The department includes the testing equipment of the unique experimental base of experimental and testing ground of RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI”. A distinctive feature of it is that it is intended for conducting full-scale tests for damaging action and destabilizing influence of high-power electromagnetic disturbances (lightning discharge, electromagnetic pulses of sources of various origin, static electricity discharges, electromagnetic fields of high-voltage power transmission lines and contact system of railroad and other) and, by its possibilities, corresponds to the new requirements to the equipment of such type, and, by its testing possibilities has no analogue in Europe and Asia. The plants were included in International register of unique testing equipment (IEC 61000-4-32), their parameters are presented in the Tables 1 and 2.
Such highly skilled specialists such as assistant professor Neskorodov G.F., prof. Konotop V.V., c.t.s. Koliushko G.M., assist. prof. Naumenko A.A., heads of departments Kolobovskii A.K., Bocharov V.A., prof. Kravchenko V.I., d.t.s. Rudakov V.V., and d.t.s. Baranov M.I. made a weighty contribution in design, creation and development of high-voltage electrophysical equipment of the department of electromagnetic tests of our institute.
Table 1. Performance data of the testing equipment
|Параметри випробувальних дій|
|Види випробувань||Параметри по ДСТУ 30585||Параметри по IEC 61312-1||Імітатор|
|Імпульс напруги||106 В/мкс до пробою||–||–||–||ІЕМІ-10|
|Повний струм блискавки||30\100\200 кА||2,0/50 мкс||100\150\200 кА
(виключаючи 200 кА)
|Електричне поле||50\150\300 кВ/м||100мкс/10мс||500 кВ/м||1 мкс||ІЕМІ-10; ГІН-1,6-5|
|Магнітне поле||50\150\300 А/м||2,0/50 мкс||Струм/2pr||10/350 мкс||ІЕМІ-10|
|Грозовий ЕМІ: Е- компонента||15\50\100 кВ/м||0,1/1,0 мкс||–||–||ІЕМІ-М5М|
|Н- компонента||40\120\250 А/м||0,1/1,0 мкс||–||–||ІЕМІ-М5М|
Table 2. Performance data of testing equipment
|Робочий об’єм, м3||Е-поле, кВ/м||Н-поле, А/м||Тривалість, нс
|Type of simulator||Voltage, MV||Useful capacity м3||Е-field, кV/m||Н-field, А/m||Фронт Front||Спад
The milestones of development of the department
Here, it is worthy to begin with that during 1964-1996 in RDI “Molniya”of NTU “KhPI” at its experimental base (Andreevka, Kharkov oblast’) on the basis of high-voltage generators of pulsed voltages (GIN) and currents (GIT) with high-power capacitive energy storages, with the participation of employees of EMI department, unique testing electrophysical plants of the type of IEMI-10 (Fig. 1), GINT-1.6-5 (Fig. 2) and GINT-12-30 (Fig. 3) intended for conducting of complex investigations of behavior of various engineering objects (for example, radio-electronic and electrotechnical devices) in conditions when they are exposed to action of high-power electromagnetic disturbances (HEMD) of natural (lightning currents and fields) and artificial (currents and fields of electric plants of ultra-high voltage) origin were created. Such scientists and specialists of the institute participated actively in creation of this and similar testing equipment in the field of HPE: c.t.s. Fertik S.M. c.t.s. Konotop V.V., c.t.s. Neskorodov G.F., c.t.s. Gladkov V.S., c.t.s. Pekar’ I.R., c.t.s. Koliushko G.M., c.t.s. Korobko A.I., d.t.s. Baranov M.I., d.t.s. Rudakov V.V., d.t.s. Boiko N.I., c.t.n. Naumenko A.A., c.t.s. Gubarev G.G., c.t.s. Khvorost V.Yu., c.t.s. Ignatenko N.N., Bocharov V.A., Klimov O.L., Kolobovskii A.K., Ignatov V.A., Zolotykh V.I., Zin’kovskii V.M., Soldatenko L.G., Kruglik N.I., Kozlov A.E., Nemchenko Yu.S., Zyabko Yu.P., Tur A.N., Tsekhmistro V.L. and others.
Fig. 1. General panoramic view of domestic middle-sized high-voltage testing electrophysical plant IEMI-10 (photo of 2008, the data of generated electromagnetic fields of this plant are presented in Table 1 given below).
In 2001 the above-mentioned testing electric plants of ultra-high voltage and high pulsed currents of our institute were included into International register of unique high-voltage testing electrophysical equipment of the world (IEC 61000-4-32). Complex electromagnetic tests of more than 3000 items of technical articles of various civil and military destination for electromagnetic compatibility and immunity to destabilizing and damaging action of HEMD with wide range of variation of amplitude-time parameters of their main characteristics given in the Table 1 was successfully conducted with help of this high-voltage testing electrophysical equipment over the past decades in RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI”.
Fig. 2. External appearance of domestic small-sized high-voltage testing electrophysical plant GINT-1.6-5 (photo of 2008, the performance data of electromagnetic fields generated by this plant are given in attached Table 1.)
Fig.3. External appearance of domestic large-size high-voltage testing electrophysical plant GINT-12-30 (photo of 2008, performance data of electromagnetic fields generated by this unique plant are given in attached Table 1)
Table 1. Performance data of main high-voltage testing electric plants of the department of EMI of RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI”.
At present the above-mentioned high-voltage testing electric plants of the type of IEMI-10, GINT-1.6-5 and GINT-12-30 situated at the experimental base of the institute that became an object of national heritage of Ukraine in 1999 not only are maintained in the working condition but are also modernized in some respects by efforts of the employees of department of EMI. Thus, over a period of 2011-2012 on the basis of high-voltage objects and generator GINT-4/1 of testing complex IEMI-10, for the needs of domestic power industry, a prototype of the unique plant for formation, according to the requirements of effective intergovernmental GOST 1516.2-97, of standard aperiodic switching voltage pulse with the following technical characteristics: voltage pulse rise time =(250±50) μs; voltage pulse half-decay time =(2500±750) μs, maximal value of pulse voltage =(2±0.2) MV; electric load equivalent – air gap “rod-plane” 5m length was created.
In 2014 in accordance with exacting requirements of international standard IEC 62305-1-2010, which is in force today, at the experimental base of the institute, a unique generator of current of artificial lightning of the type of GITM-10/350 that can form a normalized aperiodic pulses of current of the first short stroke of linear lightning with a time form =10 μs/350 μs and amplitude =±(200±20) kA, where , respectively, front duration at the level of (0.1-0.9) and duration at the level of 0.5 of current pulse of artificial lightning with the corresponding normalized tolerances for its amplitude-time parameters, at low-resistance electric load (up to 0.1 ohm) and low-inductance (to 1.5 μH) load of power-industry character was created and brought into operation by the employees of EMI department.
Here, to our opinion, it is important to emphasize continuity of generations of the employees that have been working in our institute in the area of high-voltage engineering. Thus, for example, scientific and engineering traditions in development and creation of high-voltage pulse equipment, that were laid by our predecessors in sector GIN, and first of all by its head c.t.s. Pekar’ I.R., were later on successfully continued by employees of EMI department (Fig. 4). Thus, in 2006 the employees of this department of RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI” created a mobile GIN of étagère type for rated voltage of 1.2 MV (GIN-1.2) with the following performance data: output working electric voltage – 1 MV; capacitance “in discharge” – 20.8 nF; stored electric energy – 15 kJ; internal inductance – 6 μH; ohmic resistance of low-inductance damping resistors – 48 ohm. This megavolt generator GIN-1.2 3m in height with low running inductance (up to 6 μH/MV) presented in attached Fig. 5 is built in classic high-voltage electric circuit design of Arkad’ev-Marks and is intended for generation of standard (according to requirements of effective intergovernmental GOST 1516.2-97) and non-standard lightning and switching voltage waves with amplitude from ±190 to ±1000 kV at the tested technical object (for example, at high-voltage pedestal insulator).
The above-mentioned mobile megavolt generator GIN-1.2 created “in metal” in EMI department, with potentiometer-type and capacitive voltage dividers on 1.2 MV included in its completed set is now successfully operated as a part of the factory high-voltage testing complex (Fig. 6 and 7) and is used in production-technological cycle of enterprise “ES Polymer” (Artemovsk, Donetskaya oblast’) in small-scale production of domestic polymeric suspension and pedestal insulators of voltage classes of 35-1150 kV for needs of power industry and electrified railroads of Ukraine and Russia.
Fig. 4. Employees of EMI department (photo of 2003) on the territory of high-voltage testing complex GIN-1.2 installed in Kharkov city in the laboratory building of the institute (from left to right: sector head Ignatenko N.N., eng. of II cat. Kilina L.A., r.w. Mel’nikov P.N., department head, dr.t.s. Baranov M.I., the head of the laboratory Bocharov V.A., r.w. Nosenko M.A., the head of the laboratory Kolobovskii A.K., r.w. Zyabko Yu.P.)
Fig.5. Mobile generator of pulsed voltages GIN-1.2 for the rated voltage of 1.2 MV and stored energy 15 kJ created by employees of EMI department in 2006
Fig. 6. Practical application of generator GIN-1.2 as a part of high-voltage testing complex, developed by EMI department, at the territory of intra-factory laboratory of enterprise “ES Polymer” (photo of 2006, Artemovsk city, Donetskaya oblast’)
Fig.7. External appearance of the operating high-voltage testing complex on the base of mobile generator GIN-1.2 (photo of 2007, enterprise “ES Polymer”, Artemovsk city, Donetskaya obl.)
Now employees of EMI department carry out both experimental works on investigation of electromagnetic compatibility and immunity of various specimens of equipment of civil and military destination and theoretical fundamental and applied investigations including electrophysical mechanisms of action of HEMD, high pulsed currents and high pulsed voltages on electroconductive structures (for example, on metallic bodies of aviation and rocket-space equipment) and electric circuits (for example, on their cables and wires). Besides, search works on investigation of electrophysical phenomena of linear and globe lightning and deep electrophysical mechanisms of occurrence of fundamental phenomenon of electromagnetic induction in moving and stationary conductors (loops) of engineering objects are carried out here. Employees of EMI department regularly publish the results of these investigations in the leading scientific and technical journals of Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus, and also report them on intra-Ukrainian and international conferences and symposia. Annually, the number of such publications of employees of the department is from 20 to 25. During 2008-2014 the research supervisor of EMI department, dr.t.s. Baranov M.I. published four volumes of scientific monograph “Selected Problems of Electrophysics” and two volumes of scientific monograph “Anthology of Outstanding Achievements in Science and Engineering”. In December 2008, employee of EMI department Ignatenko N.N. successfully defended a Candidate’s thesis on the theme of “Increasing Energy Efficiency of Discharging Circuits of Generators of High Pulsed Currents of Lightning” (research supervisor, Dr.t.s. Baranov M.I.). In February 2013, an assistant lecturer of department of engineering electrophysics of NTU “KhPI” Petrova V.O. successfully defended a Candidate’s thesis on the theme “Electrodynamic Resistance of Wooden High-Voltage Insulation to Action of High Pulsed Current of Lightning” (scientific supervisor, Dr.t.s. Baranov M.I.). One Laureate of State prize of Ukraine in the field of science and engineering (Dr.t.s. Baranov M.I., 2006) works in EMI department. EMI department actively collaborates with the staff of department of Engineering Electrophysics of NTU “”KhPI in training highly skilled personnel and takes part in a training process of the university. Since 2006 employees of EMI department (Dr.t.s., Sen.Res. Baranov M.I.) regularly deliver lectures to students-electrophysicists of senior years on fundamentals of scientific and engineering creativity, problems of electromagnetic compatibility and immunity of technical objects, and also on testing equipment and scientific experiment with demonstration of damaging influence of HEMD, high pulsed voltages and high pulsed currents on components of power industry objects and devices of HPE with help of operating high-voltage equipment of RDI “Molniya”of NTU “KhPI”.
At present time EMI department has, both in the composition of the above-mentioned electrophysical plants IEMI-10, GINT-1.6-5 and GINT-12-30 and in the testing complex situated in the laboratory building in Kharkov city, operating generators GIN and GIT that can provide carrying out tests of various technical objects for electric strength of their internal ant external insulation and also for electromagnetic compatibility and immunity to various electromagnetic factors according to requirements of effective domestic and foreign standards. These generators are situated both in the open air at testing grounds of the experimental base and at the testing fields inside the heated rooms of RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI.” The main performance characteristics of this power-intensive testing high-voltage equipment and its main electro technological possibilities are presented in the Table 1 given above.
In 2007 at the experimental base of the institute, employees of EMI department in scientific and technical cooperation with department of HPE (the head, c.t.s. Koliushko G.M.) of RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI” created a unique generator of current of artificial lightning (LCG) the general view of which is presented below in Fig.8. This high-power high-voltage generator LCG with the total stored electric energy of 1 MJ includes five separate generators with rated charging voltage from ±5 to ±50 kV that simulate, according to the stringent requirements of international regulatory documents for aviation equipment, the pulsed A, intermediate B, long-term C, shortened long-term C*, and repeated long-term D – components of artificial lightning current at the common resistive-inductive load. The above-mentioned components of linear lightning current, that are formed in the given LCG either separately or in the required combination, comply with the stringent active international requirements and standards imposed on such pulses of current in tests of various aircrafts for lightning immunity. All the separate generators GIT of the given LCG are built in the classic circuit design of GIT and include in their composition high-voltage low-inductance capacitors and air high-current controlled and uncontrolled switches. Technical characteristics of current pulses of imitated lightning that are formed in LCG generator are given in Table 2 below. Now the unique generator LCG effectively used in fulfillment of economy contract works of the institute in tests for electrothermal and electrodynamical immunity of components of metallic and composite skins and antenna-feeder devices of airplanes of such world widely-known aircraft industry corporations as Antonov ANTK (Ukraine) and “Boeing” (USA) to direct strokes of lightning imitated in laboratory conditions.
Fig. 8. External appearance of high-power generator of artificial lightning current LCG (in the foreground there is a working table with a high-voltage air gap, tested specimen of aluminum aircraft skin and system of air ventilation, in the background – generators GIT-A, GIT-D, GIT-B, GIT-C, and GIT-C*, photo of 2008)
Table 2. Amplitude-time parameters of artificial lightning current simulated by LCG generator developed by RDI “Molniya” of NTU “KhPI”
In 2007-2010 employees of EMI department took active part in fulfillment of calculation and experimental works with KB “Yuzhnoe” (Dnepropetrovsk city) within the framework of international cooperation with China state rocket and space corporation with the goal to ensure immunity of corresponding equipment to the action of current of linear lightning. As a result of fulfillment of these works on ensuring lightning protection of rocket and space equipment (RSE), the calculation procedures, experimentally tested in laboratory conditions, for determination of electrothermal and electrodynamic immunity of component metallic parts of this equipment (its skin and cable and wire products) to action of the main component of artificial lightning current were developed. The results of destroying action of pulsed current of artificial lightning with normalized according to the data from Table 2, amplitude-time parameters of its main pulsed A- and long-term C -components on tested aluminum skin of RSE in the circuit of LCG are presented in Fig.9.
Fig. 9. External appearance of zone of through melting of specimen of skin of PSE 1 mm thick from aluminum alloy AMg2M by combined action on it in discharging circuit of LCG firstly – of pulsed A- (=-216.2 kA; =2.03 106 A2 s; =500 μs) and then – long-term C-component (=-0.869 kA; =1000 ms; =216 C) of artificial lightning current.
In the framework of economy contracts, employees of the EMI department over a period of 2010-2011 carried out experimental investigations of lightning immunity of operating prototypes (models) of receiving-transmitting antennae of aviation equipment developed by domestic aviation industry enterprises. Some of the results of such estimation with help of LCG of the degree of lightning protection of the mentioned models of aviation antennae in conditions of direct stroke in them of artificial lightning current with normalized amplitude and time parameters of its pulsed A – component given in Table 2 are presented in Figs. 10 and 11.
Fig. 10. External appearance of a prototype model of aviation receiving-transmitting antenna before direct action on it, in discharging circuit of LCG, of pulsed A-component of artificial lightning current
Fig. 11. External appearance of the prototypel model of receiving-transmitting antenna after direct action on it in discharging circuit of LCG of pulsed A-component of artificial lightning current ( =212 kA; =1.96 106 A2 s; =500 μs)
It is follows from the experimental data presented in Figs. 9-11 that both metallic skin and receiving-transmitting antennae of new domestic and foreign aviation equipment developed and produced now are without fail to pass corresponding full-scale electrothermal and electrodynamic tests to determine indicators of their real lightning protection.